Chapter 2: Industrial Processing

The coal is washed and treated before it is transported for commercial distribution. The excess water left over from this process, called coal slurry or coal sludge, is stored in open impoundments. Coal sludge is a mix of water, coal dust, clay and toxic chemicals such as arsenic mercury, lead, copper, and chromium.

In the mining sector, water is also used to cool or lubricate cutting and drilling equipment for dust suppression, fuel processing and revegetation when the extraction process is complete. Estimates of water used for coal mining vary from 1 to 6 gallons per million British thermal units (MMBtu), depending on the source of the coal.

click here to go to Chapter 3: Energy Production

  • Founded by inventor, industrialist and philanthropist Peter Cooper in 1859, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art offers education in art, architecture and engineering, as well as courses in the humanities and social sciences.

  • “My feelings, my desires, my hopes, embrace humanity throughout the world,” Peter Cooper proclaimed in a speech in 1853. He looked forward to a time when, “knowledge shall cover the earth as waters cover the great deep.”

  • From its beginnings, Cooper Union was a unique institution, dedicated to founder Peter Cooper's proposition that education is the key not only to personal prosperity but to civic virtue and harmony.

  • Peter Cooper wanted his graduates to acquire the technical mastery and entrepreneurial skills, enrich their intellects and spark their creativity, and develop a sense of social justice that would translate into action.